Review on the localization of specification instru

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Review on the localization of specification instruments for oil testing

abstract it is pointed out that specification instruments are the basis of the standardization of oil testing methods, the process of localization of specification instruments for oil testing is summarized, and the future development direction is analyzed

subject words oil test specification instrument standardization

a perfect technical standard for petroleum products should have quality items and indicators that reflect its use performance, and should also be accompanied by corresponding test and inspection methods. The standardization of oil testing methods also requires various types of supporting specification instruments and equipment, otherwise the units that implement the product technical standards adopt non unified testing instruments, and the test results are not comparable among the units. Therefore, in the process of standardization of test methods, the preparation of test instruments must be given priority in principle, so as to avoid unnecessary difficulties in the formulation or release and implementation of test method standards. About 70% of the international and foreign advanced standards used in oil testing methods need corresponding testing instruments and equipment. Most of the oil testing methods are conditional tests that simulate the service performance of oil products. Therefore, most of the instruments and equipment required by oil testing methods are special-purpose, and the second is general-purpose physical and chemical analysis instruments used for testing other raw materials

testing instruments and equipment are the basis for the standardization of oil testing methods. In the past, in order to establish the standardization system of oil testing methods and speed up the pace of adopting international and foreign advanced standards, it was noted that at the same time, a number of oil testing instruments and equipment manufactured by foreign manufacturers were introduced from different countries, but they could not meet the needs of each implementation standard unit to carry out the standard and carry out the test. As most of the oil testing instruments and equipment are dedicated, the quotation of foreign manufacturers is very high. If they are introduced in batches, it will cost a lot of foreign exchange. Therefore, in the initial stage of adopting international and foreign advanced standards for oil testing methods, how to solve the contradiction between the standardization of oil testing methods and the supply of required instruments and equipment has become a major problem in the standardization of petroleum products. It was unrealistic at that time to rely entirely on imports to solve this problem. This is because: ① the state cannot invest a lot of foreign exchange in oil testing; ② Even if the oil testing instruments and equipment are used for a period of time, their parts and components are bound to be non standardized, and vulnerable parts also need to be continuously supplemented. At that time, when ordering from abroad, due to the continuous development of processing technology and the modification of instruments and equipment, manufacturers regarded it as an alternative to process and manufacture alone, which was not only expensive, but also had a long delivery period, making an instrument and equipment unable to continue to be used; ③ Although the core components of imported instruments have been standardized, their peripheral equipment is lack of interchangeability due to the different technical lines adopted by different countries and even different companies in the same country, which brings great trouble to the maintenance of instruments and equipment. Therefore, while adopting international and foreign advanced standards to formulate national and industrial standards for oil testing methods, can the required special instruments and equipment (hereinafter referred to as specification instruments) be based on the domestic processing and manufacturing, oil processing, sales, use, inspection and other units used in accordance with the requirements of the test method standards at the same time of the release of the test method standards, The problem of being able to purchase domestic oil products that meet the requirements of the standard, in short, the specification instruments for testing, is placed on the work agenda of the product standardization management department

in the early 1980s, after careful analysis, experts believed that as long as we try to take some specific and effective measures, we can completely localize the specification instruments for oil testing. At that time, the specific measures determined to be taken were: ① in the process of preparing the standardization plan and plan of petroleum product test methods, the principle of giving priority to the trial production of specifications and instruments required by the standard was fully reflected, and full consideration was given to the provision of prototype and the investment of standardization funds; ② Widely mobilize and give play to the enthusiasm of oil production plants, instrument manufacturers and relevant standard drafting units in three aspects, and look for feasible forms of mutual combination and joint development between different levels (large, medium and small enterprises); ③ When arranging the trial production project of specification instruments, we should pay attention to quoting the competition mechanism, and select the appropriate enterprise to undertake the completion in terms of completion time, trial production funds and quality requirements by means of bidding. Under the arrangement of the above principles, the establishment of standards for oil test methods, especially the period when the specification type adopts international and foreign advanced standards, has won the synchronization between the trial production of specification instruments and the standardization of oil test methods. Soon, a batch of specification instruments urgently needed for the self trial production and imitation of innovative oil test method standards have been put on the market through trial use and product technology appraisal, most of which have been produced in batches in succession

since we noticed the localization of the required specification instruments at the beginning of the preparation of the standardization plan of oil testing methods, after nearly 20 years of struggle, with the cooperative efforts of all parties, the specification instruments for oil testing have basically formed a production and supply system dominated by domestic instruments. Among the nearly 35 national and industrial standards for testing methods of petroleum products that have been issued, about 220 items have been directly quoted by the technical standards of petroleum products. Traditionally, this part is called common oil testing methods, and the instruments used are also called common oil testing specification instruments. There are more than 130 varieties, of which nearly 125 have been localized, with a localization rate of 96%. As the price of domestic specification instruments for oil testing is significantly lower than that of similar imported instruments (the general price ratio is 1//4), a lot of foreign exchange is saved for the country every year

good results have been achieved in the localization of specification instruments for oil testing. In addition to planning and coordination in accordance with the above-mentioned principles, there are also some specific practices worth summarizing, which can be summarized as a combination of the following five aspects

1 arrange the instrument trial production unit to pay attention to the combination of point and area

the specification instruments used in the oil test method standard are technology intensive products, which are characterized by small batch production, difficult assembly, large trial production investment, high product cost, and the manufacturer should have the adaptability to produce a variety of instruments. In view of this feature, while adopting fixed-point development and production, we also look for corresponding manufacturers to arrange trial production hierarchically according to the technical characteristics and production difficulties of specification instruments. This method of combining points and areas and developing at the same time overcomes the difficulty of urgently developing multi variety and specification instruments for the country to adopt international and foreign advanced standards. As it is expected that more than 100 materials will be added in the next few years, the b2.51 material specialist has used the different strengths of the manufacturer, accelerated the progress of the trial production of specification instruments, and adapted to the needs of the standard building method for the testing of various oil products (steam, coal, diesel, lubricant, asphalt, paraffin, liquefied petroleum gas, etc.)

2 pay attention to the close combination of trial production and trial use

the specification instruments used in a new oil testing method cannot lack the trial stage within a certain range in the process from the principle prototype to the prototype to the product development. Only through trial can we create conditions for the use of specification instruments to increase contact, mutual understanding and produce a common language with the trial manufacturers. According to the operating procedures required by the test method standard, the probationer puts forward improvement suggestions after being used with foreign instruments at the same time; The trial producer understands the use requirements through observation on the site, improves the original design pertinently, and purposefully adopts new technologies and new devices to prevent the trial production process from going astray. Generally, the specification instruments developed and produced through this combination can better meet the use requirements, and often have innovation

3 properly deal with the combination of trial production and introduction

for those instruments used for oil testing specifications with less demand and more difficulties in processing technology, as well as the key components with greater processing difficulties in instruments that affect the accuracy or accuracy of testing, imported equipment or accessories can be used to support them. This approach is not only from a technical point of view, but depends on whether the input made for processing is accounted for economically. As for which way to use to support the oil test method standards, when arranging the trial production plan of specification instruments, we need to make a comprehensive investigation and balance, with the purpose of using limited foreign exchange to the blade

4 connect the combination of host and accessories

almost all specification instruments for oil testing involve a wide range of glasses and meters (referring to special thermometers and float meters for oil testing, etc.), in which the immersion depth and verification requirements of thermometers are different from general thermometers, and the observation method of float meters also has special provisions. These glass instruments and meters are the key accessories of the specification instrument. Therefore, the quality of a complete specification instrument is closely related to these accessories. Often, the test results of the whole specification instrument do not meet the standard requirements of the test method because a set of related glassware or a thermometer does not meet the standard requirements or the accuracy is poor. Therefore, in the process of Developing Specification instruments, it is very important to pay attention to the development of glass instruments and meters. For this reason, it has specially established the technical development cooperation of special glassware, meter and porcelain utensils for petroleum product test methods, and absorbed the participation of domestic manufacturers with a long history of producing glassware and meter and strong technical strength at that time to trial produce and produce the core accessories of oil product test specification instruments. With the close cooperation of technical development, except for the glass capillary column for the determination of gasoline group composition by fluorescence chromatography, which is still being developed at home and abroad, all the glass instruments and meters supporting the specification instruments for oil testing are basically based in China. Some products, such as amalgam thermometers for testing low-temperature performance, were adopted earlier than foreign standards. Another example is the quality of special-shaped flat glass test tubes for observing copper strip corrosion, which are used to determine the corrosion performance of oil products, has also reached the level of similar foreign products

5 do a good job in the combination of manual and automatic instrument trial production

in view of the unique advantages of automatic operation of instruments for oil testing, foreign oil companies and instrument manufacturers have long considered the research of automatic specification instruments as the focus of development in the past 20 years, and have launched a number of products on the market. The main reasons why it is welcomed by customers are that after the automatic operation is realized, one experimenter can operate multiple instruments at the same time, saving manpower; Second, because the instrument does not need to be operated face-to-face after it is automated, the pollution to the environment is reduced and the health of operators is guaranteed; Third, the instrument operates automatically according to the standard procedure, which can reduce the human error and improve the test accuracy. From the analysis of the development process of the automation of foreign oil test specifications, it can be roughly divided into two stages. The first stage is to simulate the test conditions specified in the test method standard, and realize the automation of manual operation steps; The latter stage is the "start a new stove" method, which has developed rapidly in recent years, that is, the method of developing new instruments as the core and developing new test method standards. Although the test method is changed, the results of new oil performance measured by the new instrument must be converted directly or indirectly before they are basically consistent with the results measured by the classical method (however, there are also automated instruments developed for some new characteristics of oil products for another discussion). Notice the development trend of international automatic specification instruments and develop domestic self

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