The hottest lean production mode JIT and project c

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Lean production (JIT) and project cost control

with the continuous deepening of China's reform and opening up and the rapid economic development, people's living standards continue to improve, so the demand for living environment, office environment, business and leisure environment has also changed greatly, from simple popular demand to distinctive and personalized demand. Different customers have various personalized requirements for real estate commodities. In order to adapt to the market, real estate development enterprises, construction enterprises and decoration enterprises are trying to improve the service level and meet the needs of customers as much as possible. At the same time, it also greatly increases the cost of real estate products (project cost) and the management cost of enterprises, which makes many enterprises constantly explore the operation and production management mode in line with their own enterprises to reduce costs, control project costs and obtain profits. Under the circumstances of economic globalization, personalized demand, small batch and multiple varieties of products, lean production has achieved great success in Japanese and Korean enterprises. It is the management magic weapon of Japanese enterprises after the "5S". Many of its management concepts and methods are worth learning and using for reference not only in the manufacturing industry, but also in the real estate industry and construction industry. The following describes the JIT production mode and the application of dish r production in the project cost management in the project implementation stage

1 JIT production mode

1.1 the basic concept of JIT production mode

production and operation mode refers to a generalization of the organic and effective combination and operation mode of the invested resource elements, production process and output by the producer. It is a comprehensive synthesis of the strategic decision-making, system design and system operation management in the production and operation management. So far, the production mode of manufacturing industry has experienced an evolution process from manual production, batch production to lean production

in the second half of the 20th century, a new production mode with high quality, low cost and flexibility, which combines the advantages of manual production and mass production and can overcome the shortcomings of both, came into being in Japan's Toyota company, which rose after the war, that is, JIT (just IIL tiiile) production mode, also known as "Toyota production mode", which is translated as "lean production mode" in China. Its basic idea can be summed up in a sentence that is now widely spread, that is, "only when needed, produce the required products in the amount required". JIT production mode has realized the transformation from extensive production to excellence production

1.2 the core of JIT production mode

the core of JIT production mode is to pursue a relatively perfect production management system with zero inventory, zero waste, zero defect, zero failure, zero disaster and zero stagnation. Toyota's profit in 2004 was as high as US $10.2 billion, which was equivalent to twice the total profit of the industry of general motors, Ford, Chrysler and Volkswagen, which used copolymerization modification to make EPS monomer particles have the same characteristics as fire-proof materials. Under the condition that the price and usage of raw materials are basically the same, Toyota has carried out JIT production to make the operation time of production information flow, real logistics and capital flow far lower than that of its competitors. In other words, within a reasonable production cycle, according to the timely production progress, the resources 5M1E (5m refers to people, materials, machines, methods, testing, and 1E refers to the environment) to be invested should be reasonably scheduled and arranged, and what resources should be invested when needed, so as to ensure that the resources are invested without advance or delay, and to produce the required qualified products smoothly and safely (including quality safety and production safety)

the implementation of JIT production mode by enterprises is not to completely deny the current situation, nor to completely copy the experience and production of other enterprises, but should first analyze how the enterprise organizes production, so as to expose the problems existing in the process of organizing production, and then use a series of methods of JIT to change and improve. From the reasonable control of information flow, real logistics and capital flow, enterprises, customers and suppliers are organically connected. The management of an enterprise should first control the information flow (information flow). From the receipt of orders or market forecasts, it should reasonably formulate production plans and material purchase plans according to the demand information, quickly transfer information between enterprises and customers, between enterprises and suppliers, and between various departments within the enterprise, and minimize the time of information flow, so that the enterprise can have a rapid response to the market. According to the information flow, according to the JIT production concept, timely control the real logistics, timely (not ahead of time, not delayed) purchase or distribute materials (manpower, machinery), so as to effectively control the capital flow. In this way, the operation time of information flow, real logistics and capital flow of production can be greatly shortened, and with the same investment, the cost can be reduced and the profit can be increased

1.3 the focus and target orientation of JLT production mode

the focus of JIT production mode is: (1) create value, and delete all information flow links and real logistics links that do not produce value but occupy enterprise resources. Find problems by solving the repetition and pause phenomena, so as to maximize the value of the management process. Therefore, the implementation of JIT should focus on value and carry out innovation activities. (2) Shorten the time. Shortening the time is to shorten the whole process from market demand to production plan, procurement plan, production organization, storage, production and manufacturing, and finished products, so as to reduce costs and improve response speed. Therefore, without increasing resource investment in improving the performance of the diaphragm, the focus of improvement is to shorten the information/operation time, and find ways to quickly complete business and production. The goal orientation of lean production management is to constantly set higher goals to achieve and constantly improve the company's management methods

There are many methods of JIT management. There are different practical methods in different companies. In Toyota, it is "Kanban management". No matter what the method is, it is based on the enterprise's own production process, product characteristics, and the pursuit of the core purpose of JIT production. Various management methods and means are constantly summarized and improved. The most basic method is to experience more than one point of beating, frustration and test in youth. VSM analysis (value stream analysis method) compares the current situation and ideal (goal) of information flow and real logistics through in-depth investigation and analysis, exposes the problems existing in the current organization and production process, and then puts forward solutions according to the improvement goal

the main purpose of VSM analysis is to immediately expose the existing waste problems and completely eliminate waste. Only by identifying the problem can it be improved. Many people who are not familiar with lean production will encounter a lot of problems because they have not found the problem point. Therefore, to improve the waste problem in the production process of enterprises, we must first understand waste

in JIT production mode, the meaning of waste is different from what is usually called waste. For JIT, any part that exceeds the minimum amount of materials, equipment, manpower, site and time absolutely necessary to increase product value is a waste. Among them, with the gradual improvement of enterprise management level, the boundary of "absolute minimum" is constantly declining. Waste will increase costs. In JIT management, there are mainly the following eight wastes: (1) waste of defect/repair: waste caused by rework or scrap due to defective products; (2) Waste of over processing: unnecessary processing work beyond the requirements of customers; (3) Waste of action: the increase of labor and mechanical hours caused by imperfect process settings; (4) Waste of handling: increased transportation waste due to unreasonable site layout, unreasonable production process and other factors; (5) Waste of inventory: waste of inventory, transit space and stagnation of funds caused by excessive and premature purchase of materials, semi-finished products and other factors; (6) Excessive production/premature waste: waste caused by excessive and premature production due to unreasonable production management; (8) Waste of waiting: downtime caused by mechanical failure or materials: (9) waste of management: waste of human and material resources caused by poor management

to find the problem points, first of all, start from the discovery of waste, analyze the causes of waste, put forward targeted solutions, implement and follow up the records, and evaluate and summarize the improvement measures. Constantly find problems and repeat them, that is, PDCA cycle, the working method of total quality management in IS09000. In this way, enterprises can accumulate and improve their own management models and methods

2 JIT of project cost management and control in the project implementation stage

2.1 overview of project cost management and control

the whole process control of project investment is a series of actions taken by the investment subject (or its entrusting party) to ensure the realization of the project investment objectives, such as supervision, inspection, correction and so on. Traditionally, people equate the project investment cost with the project cost, and equate the project investment control with the project cost control. Its fundamental purpose is to save costs, reduce energy consumption, improve efficiency, and thus control the project cost

project cost control is dynamic in the whole process. The whole process project cost control refers to the project cost control management during the whole construction period from the prediction of the project cost in the feasibility study stage to the determination of the actual project cost and economic post evaluation. In the whole process, the project cost control is dynamic. It is necessary to analyze, evaluate and compare in real time to judge whether there is deviation, so as to ensure the realization or optimization of the goal. The basic methods of project cost control are as follows: (1) feasibility study. Analyze the feasibility of the project technically and economically, and make reasonable investment decisions and estimates; (2) Quota design. It means that the budget of the later stage should be controlled within the scope of the budget of the previous stage, which is a powerful measure to control investment expenditure and effectively use funds; (3) Value engineering. The combination of technical analysis and economic analysis enables the project to obtain the best benefits, which can be applied to construction organization design, engineering material selection, structural selection, cost review and other aspects; (4) Implement bidding; (5) Strengthen contract management

2.2 use JIT in project cost control in the construction and installation stage. For investors, the focus of project cost control should be on the design stage. However, due to some uncertain factors during the construction period, the cost control in the JIT stage is also the key. For the contractor (construction enterprise), after winning the bid and obtaining the engineering business, his control focus is the construction stage. How to reasonably arrange the construction will directly affect the project cost. Because the comprehensive unit price or total contract price has been determined in the contract, the management level of the construction enterprise, that is, the production management mode, has a direct relationship with the profits of the enterprise

some ideas and management methods of JIT production mode can play a good role in controlling project investment in the construction and installation stage. With the production concept of pursuing the core "six zeros" of JIT production, starting from the two starting points of JIT, from the three aspects of information flow, real logistics and capital flow, go to the construction site to find all "waste", then analyze the causes of waste, put forward temporary solutions and long-term prevention mechanisms, evaluate and summarize afterwards, and write the good methods into the relevant materials of the company. In this way, in one project, two top projects,?? After that, the company can form a set of management methods that keep pace with the times by continuously carrying out the PDCA cycle and improving it. Through the long-term implementation of JIT production, the company can make all employees and managers

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