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Lean management: build the micro foundation of railway reform

railway transportation production involves micro work units such as vehicles, machinery, industry, electricity and vehicles. The basic quality of these micro work units determines the process and effect of railway reform and development. Lean management can direct the span, breadth and depth of management to the railway grass-roots stations and sections, standardize the transportation and production capillaries, and refine and quantify the railway employees. It can be said that lean management itself is a reform method to promote the reform of micro management system. This paper believes that lean management has a good coupling with the characteristics of railway transportation production. It is an important means and carrier for the optimization of railway transportation resources and organizations, and can effectively promote the process of railway connotative expansion reproduction

combing the process of China's railway reform, we can clearly see the institutional changes at the macro level, the meso level (or the industrial level) and the micro level. There are multiple ways to optimize the allocation of railway resources, and certain results can be achieved from the macro level, industrial level or micro level. But no matter what kind of railway reform mode or optimization path, they can't avoid the problem of railway micro foundation in the end. In other words, any railway reform that lacks the substantive support of micro foundation will become a mere formality

How can we effectively achieve the goal of optimizing the basic management system? Lean management seems to be a very effective new production mode and practical enterprise management technology

lean management has strong applicability in micro railway transportation organization

(I) lean management is an important tool to reshape the micro organizational unit of enterprises

the concept of lean management was first proposed by Professor Ruth of Massachusetts Institute of technology and others on the basis of summarizing the production mode of Toyota in Japan in 1990. We believe that lean management adopts a "pull" management method, which takes the market demand of products as the leader, and the various production resources, production operation modules and production processes of the enterprise should be closely coordinated, one ring pulling one ring, so as to achieve the lean management goals of zero waste, punctuality and flexible production. Lean management goes deep into the micro organization of enterprises and integrates the production process with the market demand organically, which can improve the effectiveness and economy of the production process and improve the market competitiveness of enterprises. Lean management is not only an important technical means of modern enterprise management innovation, but also a very important management concept and production mode. Lean management is not only an effective management idea, but also an effective management technology. Common management techniques of lean management include: (1) just in time (JIT), that is, taking time management as the main line, all production links should be operated in accordance with the specified sequence; (2) Pull system (Kanban Management), that is, take the products required by the market as the most dynamic pull point, and all departments and types of work within the enterprise must obey the command of the "Kanban" of market demand; (3) Zero inventory management, that is, do not store excess production capacity and speed up capital turnover; (4) Flexible production, that is, enterprises should realize large-scale and multi product production and make full use of the benefits of economies of scale and economies of scope; (5) Group work method, that is, to establish various temporary promotion groups and project institutions for project management; (6) Visual management of 5S activities. 5S is the first letter of Japanese sorting, rectification, cleaning, cleaning and literacy. Visual management is to make the life process, on-site problems and information transparent by setting up various signs and signboards on the production site; (7) Other management techniques

several very important features of lean management are punctuality, refinement, standardization, standardization, informatization and simplification, and punctuality is the most typical feature. This requires that the time of each production link of the enterprise should be consistent, the decomposition of responsibilities and rights should be accurate to the operation and individuals, the rules and regulations should be orderly and standardized, the reward and punishment standards should be unified and clear, the data collection of the information platform should be accurate and complete, and the degree of human intervention in enterprise management should be simplified while improving the production efficiency of the enterprise. At the same time, lean management emphasizes the "pull" effect of products, pays attention to the reengineering of enterprise production process according to the quantity and quality of products required by the market, and requires that all micro organizational cells of the enterprise can accurately and flexibly meet the production tasks decomposed by the final market demand

lean management has brought profound changes in the mode of enterprise production management to the automotive industry, and also brought new opportunities to other manufacturing industries. Lean management recreates the production process of enterprises, optimizes the micro cells of enterprises, and enables enterprises to quickly adapt to various forms and types of resource integration and organization optimization measures caused by changes in internal and external conditions. It is precisely because of the revolutionary reconstruction of the micro organizational unit of enterprises by lean management that some scholars say that the real production crisis in the world is not overproduction, But the lack of such effective production methods as lean management

(II) lean management plays a more significant role in railway transportation displacement services

lean management originated in the automobile manufacturing industry and has achieved remarkable results when applied to the production process of tangible physical products. Then, can lean management play the same role in the field of transportation, especially in the field of railway transportation services that produce intangible products? In other words, what is the applicability of lean management in the railway transportation service industry of (4) graphene based high-performance thermal interface materials used in the optical/electrical field, which mainly provides passenger and cargo spatial displacement services

transportation enterprises such as Urumqi Railway Bureau, Liuzhou Railway Bureau, Shanghai Railway Bureau and COSCO Group have successively applied Lean management to the process of micro railway transportation organization. The practical results of these enterprises show that lean management is more practical in the transportation service industry that produces intangible products. It realizes the optimization of enterprise micro organization unit structure, the saving of transportation resource input, and the increase of transportation product output, The improvement of business efficiency. The most outstanding achievement of lean management in railway transportation enterprises is that enterprise management goes directly to the end of grass-roots production organization units, and the controllability of various transportation resource allocation is strengthened. With the continuous advance of the control point of the micro transportation organization unit, railway transportation enterprises continue to transition from the original product result control to process control, and from process control to the source control of passenger and freight flow. By incorporating grassroots operations into the process of railway transportation organization and management, by incorporating customer transportation needs into the production chain of railway transportation products, and by extending the information platform network to the micro grassroots production units and customer specific production processes, railway transportation enterprises can truly achieve "full coverage of management, clear responsibility and authority boundaries, detailed data collection, and sufficient assessment basis"

lean management has significantly transformed the micro railway transportation organization unit. With the promotion of lean management, railway transportation resources have been integrated, railway transportation, which is not the same as the correction point, the transportation organization has been optimized, the production process of railway transportation has been sorted out, and the railway transportation enterprises can respond to the market demand more quickly, so as to establish the larger-scale passenger and freight space displacement production activities on the basis of energy-saving transportation enterprises, This has also laid a solid foundation for institutional reform with greater intensity at the industrial and macro levels

pay attention to the basic position and role of lean management in railway reform

in order to promote the institutional changes at all levels in China's railway field, we must pay attention to the stable construction of the corresponding micro foundation through lean management. From the perspective of economic theory, railway lean management constructs the necessary module units for railway reform, which is conducive to the reorganization of Railway Assets and businesses, as well as the adjustment of railway organization boundaries and rights allocation

According to the modularization theory, in a complex division of labor and cooperation system, when the final product depends on the joint production of multiple microstructure modules, the reasonable determination of the unit boundary of each microstructure module is very necessary. In the production of railway transportation products, the organization modules such as vehicles, machines, workers, electricity and vehicles cannot complete the production tasks independently. They are not completely self-discipline, but semi self-discipline organization modules. If the status and role of each organization module cannot be clearly divided, oscillation or pipeline leakage cannot be caused, the interface rules between the organization modules cannot be constructed, and unified performance and quantitative assessment standards cannot be formulated, then, All stakeholders representing economic organizations will have internal incentives to free ride, so they will not complete the team production tasks well, provide complete transportation products required by the market at a low cost, give full play to the capacity of railway facilities to realize network economy, and will not well meet the passenger and freight transportation needs in the transportation market. Therefore, We must pay attention to the contractual relationship between various micro organizational modules and the construction of transaction rules

in a sense, the railway reform is to adjust the government boundaries and enterprise boundaries in the railway industry, to build a real railway transportation enterprise with clear organizational boundaries, to appropriately introduce the market competition mechanism, to encourage railway transportation enterprises to adapt to market demand, to optimize railway transportation organization and production process, and to improve the efficiency of railway transportation resource allocation under the new institutional arrangement, Provide the society with high-quality passenger and freight transportation products, and promote the benign development of economy and society. And all this should be based on the microstructure module. If the internal organization modules of railway transportation enterprises do not realize lean management, and the status, role and function of each sub module in the organization are not well defined, then the implementation cost of railway reform will be very high, and the implementation resistance will be great; If each railway transportation enterprise is regarded as an independent organization module, if the information transmission, business communication and production process between them are lack of necessary norms, the transaction cost of railway reform will be very high, and there will be more contradictions among railway transportation enterprises; If there are no dispatching and command rules, revenue liquidation and cost payment rules that can be implemented into specific operations and standardize the relationship between railway transportation enterprises, and there is a lack of enforceable unified standards, then the railway reform still needs the necessary intervention and intervention of government agencies, and the goals of separating government from enterprises will be difficult to achieve

from the current reality of China's railway industry, with the support of the established management system and information platform, we can't fully calculate the number of operations consumed by a truck, accurately calculate the structure and split proportion of activity-based costs, timely collect the information required for performance appraisal and income distribution, and effectively coordinate the complex relationship between various operation departments. In order to provide the necessary basic conditions for railway reform, it is necessary to introduce lean management in the field of railway transportation, and promote the process of railway reform from bottom to top and step by step from the micro organizational unit. In a sense, lean management itself is a way of reform. (end)

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